Sabah Forestry Department - Sustainable Forest Management (SFM)

The Forest Enactment (1968) and Forest Rules 1969 legislated by the Sabah State Assembly, are the two empowering and regulatory instruments for the management and administration of various Forest Reserves (FRs). Sabah's Forest Policy on the other hand sets the forest management direction. Forest management practices are of crucial importance in relation to nature and forest conservation as they are likely to reduce bio-diversity or change species composition relative to pre – intervention conditions.


SFM therefore aims for sustained yields of multiple products and services from the forest. It offers the opportunity of maintaining the forests by producing timber that sustains the environmental conditions and biodiversity at the same time. It is an effective compromise between the desire of conserving species as well as habitats and the need to use the forest resources to generate wealth and employment.

Sneak Peeks of the Xtreme Trus Madi at Facebook Alblum: Click Here to View

The Trus Madi Forest Reserve Conservation Area (FMU 10)

The establishment of this Conservation Area for FMU 10 is a deliberate intervention by the Sabah State government in its continous endeavour to further the conservation and protection agenda of the state's valuable tropical forests under the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) concept.


The CAMP FMU 10 was developed under the Vertical Intergration of government agencies approach spearheaded by the leadership of the Sabah Forest Department (SFD) and unweavered commitments by the relevant government agencies such as the Sabah Wildlife Department (SWD), Sabah Parks (SP), the Sabah Fisheries Department (SFsD), the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) as well as the Tambunan and Keningau District Office and the Research arms of SFD.


More info of FMU 10 at:

The Trus Madi Forest Reserve, named after Mount Trus Madi is located in the district of Tambunan in the centre Sabah, between longitude 116o 34’ E and 117o 01’ E and latitude 5o 27’N and 5o 52’N.The name Trus Madi comes from the Dusunic word "Mongintorus," meaning a place where one finds food in the jungle, and from Mr Semadi, who first climbed the mountain. At 2,642 m, Mt. Trus Madi is the second highest mountain in Malaysia with an estimated area of 220 ha. It is located in the western part of Sabah (5°35'N, 116°30'E). The mountain is at the centre of the Trus Madi Forest Reserve (175,877 ha) which was reclassified recently as a Class I Forest Reserve, or Protection Forest.

The mountain supports a wide range of unique flora and fauna, perhaps most notably the endemic species Nepenthes macrophylla and its natural hybrid N. x trusmadiensis. The vegetation on Mt. Trus Madi can be divided into three zones, namely Lower Montane Forest (1,500-1,850/2,000 m), Upper Montane Forest (1,850/2,000-2,500 m) and Summit Scrub (2,500-2,642 m). The lower and upper montane forests on Trus Madi are very similar to those on Mt. Kinabalu, both in species composition and appearance.

The climb to the summit of Mt. Trus Madi provides a wonderful opportunity foradventurers to see Nepenthes in the wild. Mt. Trus Madi has four visible taxa, and the plants are mostly undisturbed and able to grow without much apparent damage from climbers. Nepenthes are present almost everywhere along the Trus Madi trail, and the variability of colour and size of N. tentaculata is much greater than that on Mt. Kinabalu, where the plants tend to be small and the colour constrained to shades of green and pink. Adventurers might also have the opportunity to witness frog eggs in pitchers of N tentaculata.



Mt. Trus Madi is therefore a "must-see" destination for botanical enthusiasts and adventurers. However, care must be taken to ensure that the pitcher plant populations remain pristine and undisturbed.


The Nepenthes of Mt. Trus Madi

There are four Nepenthes taxa found along the trail to the summit of Mt. Trus Madi, including three species and one hybrid: N. tentaculata, N. lowii, N. macrophylla, and N. x trusmadiensis.

N. tentaculata was found along most of the trail above 1,635 m, while N. lowii was found above 2,150 m, and N. macrophylla was found above 2,410 m. Two populations of the natural hybrid N. x trusmadiensis could be seen at 2,350 m. There were 11 colour combinations of N. tentaculata observed along the trail, while N. lowii and N. macrophylla were more uniform in appearance. In comparison to the N. tentaculata of Mt. Kinabalu, we found that N. tentaculata forms in Mt. Trus Madi were highly diverse despite the relatively short distance along the trail.

The remarkable variety of Nepenthes species on Mt. Trus Madi, as well as the existence of one endemic species (N. macrophylla) and one endemic hybrid (N. x trusmadiensis) demand that continued efforts to preserve the populations of these plants on the mountain. In particular, the limited altitudinal ranges of these two endemics and the fact that they only grow on this mountain require that these taxa receive increased conservation attention.

Nepenthes x trusmadiensis

This taxon is a natural hybrid between Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla, and is found only on Mt. Trus Madi due to the fact that Nepenthes macrophylla is a Trus Madi endemic. This hybrid growing as a vine in the trees at an elevation of 2,350 m. Pitchers were large, around 18 cm tall, and a yellow-green colour.

Nepenthes macrophylla

This species are at the highest observed elevation being 2,620 m, at the Repeater. Plants were generally climbing vines in the trees along the trail. Pitchers were very large, up to 30 cm tall, with green or red pitchers.


Nepenthes lowii

The populations of Nepenthes lowii found along the trail generally grow at a higher altitude than those on Mt. Kinabalu. In most cases, the plants were climbing in the trees alongside the trail, with large pitchers about 18 cm tall.

Pitchers tended to be bright green with red inside the pitcher and underneath the lid. On some pitchers, white clumps of nectar were present on the underside of the lid. Male flowers were also observed.


*Source - Sepilok Bulletin 13 & 14: 43-57 (2011) Nepenthes species along the trail to the summit of Mount Trus Madi, Tambunan By: J. Kulip* & E.D. Butler of Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.



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